Factories ACT 1948

The Factories Act, 1948 is an important labor legislation in India that governs the working conditions, health, safety, and welfare of workers employed in factories. The Act aims to ensure adequate protection for factory workers and prevent occupational hazards. Here are the key features and
provisions of the Factories Act, 1948:

  • Scope and Applicability: The Act applies to factories where specified manufacturing processes are carried out, and a certain number of workers are employed. The Act covers aspects related to the health, safety, welfare, and working conditions of workers in these factories.
  • Factory Registration: The Act mandates the registration of factories with the appropriate government authority before they can commence operations. Factory owners are required to submit an application along with necessary documents and comply with specific requirements related to the factory’s construction, layout, and safety measures.
  • Health and Safety Provisions: The Act sets forth various provisions to ensure the health and safety of workers within factories. It includes measures related to cleanliness, ventilation, temperature, lighting, and drinking water facilities. The Act also covers aspects such as prevention of overcrowding, maintenance of machinery, handling hazardous substances, and precautions against fire and accidents.
  • Working Hours: The Act regulates the working hours of adult workers in factories. It stipulates a maximum of nine hours of work per day and 48 hours per week. It also provides for weekly rest days and restrictions on overtime work.
  • Employment of Young Persons: The Act includes provisions regarding the employment of young persons, defined as individuals between the ages of 15 and 18. It sets limits on their working hours, prohibits them from working at night, and ensures appropriate safety measures and welfare facilities for their protection.
  • Welfare Facilities: The Act specifies the provision of welfare facilities for factory workers, including adequate and clean washing facilities, first aid provisions, canteen facilities (in factories employing a certain number of workers), and proper arrangements for the disposal of waste and effluents.
  • Annual Leave with Wages: The Act mandates the provision of annual leave with wages for factory workers who have completed a certain period of continuous service. It specifies the calculation of leave entitlement and wage rates during the leave period.
  • Inspection and Enforcement: The Act empowers government authorities to conduct regular inspections of factories to ensure compliance with its provisions. Inspectors have the authority to examine records, issue directions for compliance, and take appropriate action in case of violations.
  • Penalties: The Act prescribes penalties for contraventions of its provisions. It includes fines and imprisonment for offenses committed by employers, managers, and workers.

The Factories Act, 1948 is an important legislation that aims to safeguard the interests of workers employed in factories. Its provisions are designed to ensure a safe and healthy working environment, protect workers from occupational hazards, and promote their overall welfare